"FREEDOM FIGHTERS"

UNITED STATES COLORED SOLDIERS, SAILORS AND CONTRABANDS

in

AMERICA'S CIVIL WAR

By Bennie J. McRae, Jr.

©Copyright 1993-2008

Visit the LEST WE FORGET Web Site

"...we have suffered to save the country, we ought to be remembered."

Albert Bird, Company G, 15th Regiment United States Colored Infantry and Adjutant, William Anderson Post No. 244, Grand Army of the Republic,
Washington Court House, Ohio.

CIVIL WAR BOOKS


THE FIRST BLACK SOLDIERS

http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/soldiers.htm
 




 

ONE OF THE MOST DARING AND HEROIC ACTS OF THE CIVIL WAR

 THIRD UNITED STATES COLORED CAVALRY

http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/mississippi/third_uscc.htm
 


"No officer in this regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of black troops. Their superiority lies simply in the fact that they know the country, while white troops do not, and, moreover, that they have peculiarities of temperament, position, and motive which belong to them alone. Instead of leaving their homes and families to fight they are fighting for their homes and families, and they show the resolution and sagacity which a personal purpose gives. It would have been madness to attempt, with the bravest white troops what I have successfully accomplished with the black ones. Everything, even to the piloting of the vessels and the selection of the proper points for cannonading, was done by my own soldiers." -- Excerpt from February 1, 1863 report by Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Union) after the January 23 - February 1, 1863 Expedition from Beaufort South Carolina, up the Saint Mary,s River in Georgia and Florida.


 

GENERAL ORDERS No. 252.

WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, July 31, 1863.

The following order of the President is published for the information and government of all concerned:

"EXECUTIVE MANSION,

"Washington, D.C., July 30, 1863.

"It is the duty of every government to give protection to its citizens of whatever class, color, or condition, and especially to those who are duly organized as soldiers in the public service. The law of nations and the usages and customs of war as carried on by civilized powers permit no distinction as to color in the treatment of prisoners of war as public enemies. To sell or enslave any captured person on account of his color, and for no offense against the laws of war, is a relapse into barbarism and a crime against the civilization of the age.

"The Government of the United States will give the same protection to all its soldiers; and if the enemy shall sell or enslave any one because of his color, the offense shall be punished by retaliation upon the enemy's prisoners in our possession.

"It is therefore ordered, that for every soldier of the United States killed in violation of the laws of war a rebel soldier shall be executed; and for every one enslaved by the enemy, or sold into slavery, a rebel soldier shall be placed at hard labor on the public works and continued at such labor until the other shall be released and receive the treatment due to a prisoner of war.

"ABRAHAM LINCOLN."

By order of the Secretary of War:

E. D. TOWNSEND,

 Assistant Adjutant-General.


 

Nineteenth Century Freedom Fighters:: The 1st South Carolina Volunteers

BOOK

To order, click below or on image

Nineteenth Century Freedom Fighters - 1st South Carolina Volunteers

REVIEWS

George Geder -- http://afrigeneas.com/forum-books/index.cgi?read=2300

Tony Dorty -- http://www.lwfaam.net/books/review_ncff.htm


 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
August 11, 2009

Lucy’s Story:  Right Choices But Wrongs Still Left
by Larry Hamilton

A compelling story of Lucy Sams' (the author's great great grandmother) life during the Civil War as a slave in Madison County, Kentucky, through her flight to Camp Nelson, Kentucky, a haven of refuge.

http://www.aaggmv.org/news/lucy_sams.htm

Acknowledgments

http://www.aaggmv.org/news/lucy_sams2.htm
 



 

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
SPECIAL TOPICS AND LINKS

http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/spl_topics.htm


 


Unidentified Civil War soldier.
Believed to have served in a
USCT regiment organized in
Kentucky.
Courtesy:  Hasker Nelson, Jr.
Cincinnati. Ohio


"Thunder on the River" - Civil War Living History
May 31, 1998 - Camp Nelson, Kentucky
Courtesy: Members of the 1st Kentucky Cavalry and Horse Artillery

CALENDAR OF EVENTS

***** EVENTS *****

 

THE BURNING OF HAMPTON, VIRGINIA

http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/hampton/burning.htm
 

 

MILITARY RECORDS AND VETERANS REFERENCE DESK

http://www.bjmjr.net/military/index.htm

UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS

*** Brief Notes and Links ***

http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/usct.htm

********************

 

BOOKS

By Juanita Patience Moss

http://www.lwfaam.net/moss/home.htm

First Alabama Cavalry U.S.A.: Homage to Patriotism

By Glenda McWhirter Todd

http://www.lwfaam.net/todd/home.htm

BOOK

http://www.lwfaam.net/todd/1stalacav.htm


 

THE SKIRMISH AT ISLAND MOUND, MISSOURI

1st Kansas Colored Volunteers

http://islandmound.tripod.com/index1.htm

http://www.12thuscha.com/


 

13th United States Colored Troops Living History Association

XXV
ARMY CORPS

http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/xxvac/index.htm


 


UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS LIVING HISTORY ASSOCIATION

http://www.usctlha.net/

************************


 

Merchant Marine in Civil War - includes African-American Mariners


 

Research History Class

WASHINGTON SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Washington Court House, Ohio

Presents

"FREEDOM FIGHTERS"

United States Colored Troops in the Civil War

www.usctcw.org

 

3rd US COLORED INFANTRY REGIMENT
CIVIL WAR RE-ENACTORS

UNITED STATES COLORED TROOP'S

HEADQUARTERS
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA

 

RESTING PLACES OF UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS

www.lwfaaf.net/

RESTING PLACES IN OHIO

www.usctohio.org

...from his birth in the wilderness of Kentucky to his early years in Indiana and his growth in Illinois... from storekeeper to self-taught lawyer and politican... through his years as President during the Civil War and his death at the hands of an assassin in Ford's Theatre.

Over the years, Dennis Boggs has researched countless books and papers, and has diligently designed a presentation that encompasses fifty-six years of Abraham Lincoln's life into a program that has something to offer audiences of all ages.

To arrange a performance, visit the following website:

http://www.meetmrlincoln.com

ULYSSES S. GRANT

Commander of the Union Armies and
18th President of the United States

http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/grant/index.htm

 


 

 

THE SPIRIT OF

FREDERICK DOUGLASS

http://www.spiritoffrederickdouglass.com

 


CONTRABANDS

COLORED TROOPS

CHRONOLOGY - (Selected)

TIMELINE 1861-1865

ORGANIZATION OF USCT

OFFICIAL RECORDS

WEBSITES

INDIAN TERRITORY

READING LIST

POTPOURRI

RESTING PLACES OF USCT

HISTORY SOURCEBOOK


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"...we have suffered to save the country, we ought to be remembered," Albert Bird, Company G, 15th United States Colored Infantry Regiment and Adjutant, William Anderson Post No. 244, Grand Army of the Republic, Washington Court House, Ohio.

Units organized:

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - SPECIAL TOPICS AND LINKS

AMERICAN FREEDMAN'S INQUIRY COMMISSION - PRELIMINARY REPORT

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LEST WE FORGET

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1ST SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEERS/33RD USCI

13TH UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS LIVING HISTORY ASSOCIATION

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - SPECIAL TOPICS AND LINKS

BATTLE OF BRICE'S CROSSROADS, MISSISSIPPI

BETRAYAL AT EBENEZER CREEK

CIVIL WAR IN INDIAN TERRITORY

CIVIL WAR ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER

CORPS D'AFRIQUE ENGINEERS IN THE RED RIVER CAMPAIGN

FIRST ALABAMA CAVALRY - United States Volunteers

FIRST DIVISION UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS - BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN P. HAWKINS, COMMANDER

GENERAL AND PRESIDENT ULYSSES S. GRANT

LOUISIANA NATIVE GUARDS

ONE OF THE MOST DARING AND HEROIC ACTS OF THE CIVIL WAR - Third U. S. Colored Cavalry Regiment

ORGANIZATION OF UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS

SEVENTY-NINTH U. S. COLORED INFANTRY

SKIRMISH AT ISLAND MOUND, MISSOURI

THE UNITED STATES COLORED TROOP'S
3rd US COLORED INFANTRY REGIMENT
CIVIL WAR RE-ENACTORS,
HEADQUARTERS,
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.

THIRD U. S. COLORED CAVALRY

UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS LIVING HISTORY ASSOCIATION 

USCT UNITS SERVING ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER, 1865

U.S. COLORED TROOPS FORMED IN NORTH CAROLINA

XXV ARMY CORPS

SUMMARY

Approximately 160 regiments and 10 batteries of light artillery organized in the Confederate States by the Union Army or as state militia in the North and redesignated as United States Colored Troops after the establishment of the Bureau of Colored Troops on May 22, 1863. NOTE: The 29th Connecticut Infantry Regiment, 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, 55th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, and the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry Regiment maintained State designations throughout the war.

Between 178,000 and 200,000 Black enlisted and White officers served under the Bureau of Colored Troops which was established by General Order No. 143 on May 22, 1863.

Approximately 94,000 men were ex-slaves from states that had seceded from the Union. Approximately 44,000 were ex-slaves or freemen from the border states, and the remainder were recruited from the northern states and the Colorado Territory, many who were ex-slaves that went north on the Underground Railroad.

Charles Tyler Trowbridge was said to have been the first person to enlist Colored soldiers in the Union Army. He did so in the Spring of 1862 while serving on the staff of General David Hunter, during the organizing of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers. The unit was not mustered into the Union Army and was disbanded in August 1862, except for one company, and was re-organized later in the Fall of 1862.

The Cincinnati Black Brigade was organized in September 1862. The men served in three regiment for three weeks. Unarmed and without uniforms, the men built roads and fortifications in Northern Kentucky.

The Louisiana Native Guards were the first black soldiers to be officially mustered into the Union Army.

First engagement against the Confederates occurred on October 27 - 29, 1862 at Island Mound, Missouri by the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteer Regiment before being mustered into service. The regiment was organized in August 1862, mustered into service January 13, 1863, and later redesignated the 79th United States Colored Infantry Regiment. Most of the enlisted men were ex-slaves from Arkansas and Missouri.

The second engagement involved the 1st South Carolina Colored Volunteers at Township, Florida on January 26, 1863.

The largest number of regiments were organized in the following States: Louisiana - 36 regiments (approximately); Kentucky - 21 regiments; Tennessee - 18 regiments; and Mississippi - 11 regiments.

Louisiana furnished 24,000 men; Kentucky - 23,000 men; Tennessee - 20,000 men; and Mississippi - 18,000 men.

The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment was mustered into service on May 13, 1863, approximately eight months after muster in of the Louisiana Native Guards.

Numerous men from the Midwest and border states along with ex-slaves from the south traveled great distances to enlist and serve with the 54th and 55th Massachusetts Infantry Regiments, and the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry Regiment.

The United States Colored Troops participated in 449 engagements of which 39 were major battles.

Eight regiments from Louisiana fought at Port Hudson, Louisiana from May 22 to July 8, 1863.

The 9th Louisiana Volunteers, 11th Louisiana Volunteers and the 1st Mississippi Volunteers suffered extremely heavy losses during the Battle of Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, June 5 thru 7, 1863. (The units were redesignated respectively the 5th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery Regiment, 49th and 51st U.S. Colored Infantry Regiments.)

One of the most significant engagements in the West occurred on July 17, 1863 during the Battle of Honey Springs, Indian Territory. The approximately 3,000 Union force included the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteer Regiment, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Indian Home Guard Regiments, and white State Militia units against approximately 6,000 mostly Texas Confederates. Other American Indian units also fought with the Confederates. The Confederate forces were defeated.

The Union forces were defeated during the Battle of Olustee, Florida on February 20, 1864. Heavy losses were suffered by the 8th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment, 35th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment, and the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment.

Over 10,000 U.S. Colored Troops were recruited and trained at Camp Nelson, Kentucky. Thousands of ex-slaves gained their freedom at the camp and the Union Army established a refugee camp for these individuals throughout the war.

Hundreds of Afro-British North Americans - (Part 2) from Canada enlisted in 19 regiments of the United States Colored Troops. Others came from the Caribbean and some African countries.

Twenty-two regiments of U.S. Colored Troops participated in the Siege of Petersburg, Virginia from June 15, 1864 to April 2, 1865.

Thirteen U. S. Colored Infantry along with white units engaged the enemy at Chapin's (Chaffin's) Farm, Virginia on September 29 and 30, 1864. Thirteen members on the U. S. Colored Infantry Regiments were awarded the Medal of Honor.

The 5th United States Colored Cavalry Regiment suffered losses of 114 enlisted and 4 officers during the Battle of Saltville, Virginia on October 2, 1864.

The 3rd United States Colored Cavalry Regiment (organized in Memphis and northern Mississippi as the 1st Mississippi Colored Cavalry) participated in the second Grierson Raid from Memphis, Tennessee to Vicksburg, Mississippi commencing on December 21, 1864 and ending on January 13, 1865. Brigadier General Benjamin H. Grierson led three Brigades on this successful expedition.

Harriet Tubman, a nurse, spy and scout, formerly a conductor on the Underground Railroad has been described as "the head of the intelligence service in the Department of the South" and as "the only American woman to lead troops black or white on the field of battle." The South Carolina raid under the command of Colonel James Montgomery and led by Harriet Tubman destroyed millions of dollars worth of commissary stores and cotton... and freed over 800 slaves and confiscated thousands of dollars worth of property.

Eleven regiments of United States Colored Troops (8 from Louisiana, 1 from Mississippi, 1 from Missouri, and 1 organized in Louisiana and Mississippi) fought in the Mobile, Alabama Campaign (Battle of Fort Blakely) from March 31 to April 9, 1865. Two of the regiments served in an engineer brigade under the headquarters command

Orders was issued on December 3, 1864 authorizing the formation of the Twenty-Fifth United States Army Corps. The Corps was the first and only Army Corps in the history of the country made up almost entirely of black infantry regiments, 30 U.S. Colored Infantry Regiments. In addition, 2 U. S. Colored Cavalry Regiments and a Battery of U. S. Colored Light Artillery was assigned to the Corps.

On April 9, 1865, three U. S. Colored Infantry Regiments from the Twenty-Fifth United States Army Corps (29th, 31st, and 116th) were positioned along the advance line of 17 Union regiments that moved from the west towards Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia to prevent the Confederate forces from escaping westward. Three other U. S. Colored Infantry Regiments (8th, 41st, and 45th) also assigned to the Corps were positioned in the rear.

Thirty-six Blacks with the Confederates, mostly slaves were paroled at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.

The 62nd U. S. Colored Infantry Regiment (Missouri) participated in the last major engagement of the Civil War at Palmetto Ranch, Texas on May 15, 1865, over a month after General Lee's surrender at Appomattox, Virginia.
 

 

MILITARY RECORDS AND VETERANS REFERENCE DESK

http://www.bjmjr.net/military/index.htm

Google

LEST WE FORGET

THE MAKING OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

LEST 
WE
FORGET

FAMILY OF WEB SITES AND INDEX PAGES

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